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Empire of Brazil

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Empire of Brazil

Bài gửi by kosovohp on Mon Sep 20, 2010 11:59 pm

King João VI returned to Europe on 26 April 1821, leaving his elder son Prince Pedro de Alcântara as regent to rule Brazil.[40] The Portuguese government attempted to turn Brazil into a colony once again, thus depriving it of its achievements since 1808.[41] The Brazilians refused to yield and Prince Pedro stood by them declaring the country's independence from Portugal on 7 September 1822.[42] On 12 October 1822, Pedro was declared the first Emperor of Brazil and crowned Dom Pedro I on 1 December 1822.[43]

At that time almost all Brazilians were in favor of a monarchy and republicanism had little support.[44][45] The subsequent Brazilian War of Independence spread through almost the entire territory, with battles in the northern, northeastern, and southern regions.[46] The last Portuguese soldiers surrendered on 8 March 1824[47] and independence was recognized by Portugal on 29 August 1825.[48]
Brazilian forces (in dark blue uniform) engage the Paraguayan army during the War of the Triple Alliance.

The first Brazilian constitution was promulgated on 25 March 1824, after its acceptance by the municipal councils across the country.[49][50][51][52] Pedro I abdicated on 7 April 1831 and went to Europe to reclaim his daughter’s crown, leaving behind his five year old son and heir, who was to become Dom Pedro II.[53] As the new emperor could not exert his constitutional prerogatives until he reached maturity, a regency was created.[54]

Disputes between political factions led to rebellions and an unstable, almost anarchical, regency.[55] The rebellious factions, however, were not in revolt against the monarchy,[56][57] even though some declared the secession of the provinces as independent republics, but only so long as Pedro II was a minor.[58] Because of this, Pedro II was prematurely declared of age and "Brazil was to enjoy nearly half a century of internal peace and rapid material progress.

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